There are three main types of stem cells derived from bone marrow. One is the hematopoietic stem cell. This stem cell gives rise to many other types of blood cells in the body. Another type of stem cell is the endothelial stem cell, which gives rise to many of the cells of the vasculature in the body. One of the more common stem cells found in the bone marrow is the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), which gives rise to muscle, ligaments, cartilage, and is a potent force causing new blood vessel formation.

The mesenchymal stem cell also produces an anti-inflammatory effect. The pericyte is a primitive type of mesenchymal stem cell that surrounds the small blood vessels in the areas where there are mesenchymal stem cells. The pericyte is thought to be the precursor of the MSC. One in 10,000 cells in the bone marrow is a mesenchymal stem cell. A typical yield for the number of stem cells in a bone marrow derived procedure is about 30-60,000 MSCs.

In a bone marrow derived procedure the lessening of pain result is not only because of the stem cell population, but also because of a very potent concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines are small proteins released by cells. They have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells. They are often either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory in nature. Special processing of the bone marrow derived procedure can cause the anti-inflammatory cytokines to be in a much larger concentration than the pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is a published fact that if the ratio of an important anti-inflammatory cytokine know as IL1-ra exists in a concentration 10 times greater that the most potent pro-inflammatory cytokine known as IL1-beta, then there will be a favorable anti-inflammatory and healing response in the area. Our processing has been shown to cause the ratio of IL1-ra/IL1-beta to be potentially as high as 500/1(!)